California Crimes And Accidents
Associated With Hitchhiking

ANNEX A

SENATE RESOLUTION 18

By Senator Walsh

Relative to crimes and accidents associated with hitchhiking.

Resolved by the Senate of the State of California,
That the Department of the California Highway Patrol conduct a study of crimes and accidents caused by or associated with hitchhikers. The study should specifically include all incidents where: (1) accidents have been caused by a vehicle in the process of picking up or discharging a hitchhiker on the freeway or on or near a freeway entrance or exit ramp: (2) crimes have been perpetrated by hitchhikers; and (3) crimes have been committed by other persons and the hitchhiker is the victim: and be it further

Resolved, That in the event hitchhiker-related crimes or accidents occur outside the jurisdictional boundary of the California Highway Patrol, the local law enforcement agency will submit a report summarizing the incidents to the department in a form and manner prescribed by them: and be it further

Resolved, That the department submit a report to the Senate not later than March 1, 1974; and be it further

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate transmit a copy of this resolution to the Department of the California Highway Patrol.

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE ABOVE RESOLUTION WAS ADOPTED BY THE SENATE ON MARCH 6, 1973.

DARRYL R. WHITE
Secretary of the Senate


ANNEX B

LETTERS AND FORMS

Letters and forms sent to all chiefs of police, sheriffs and California Highway Patrol Area Commanders.


STATE OF CALIFORNIA-BUSINESS AND TRANSPORTATION AGENCY
RONALD REAGAN, Governor
DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL
P.O. BOX 898
SACRAMENTO. CALIFORNIA 95804

April 23, 1973

File No: 1.A2417.A2838

Chiefs of Police and Sheriffs

Gentlemen:

Your cooperation is needed by this Department and the State Legislature to carry out a special research study on hitchhikers.

Senate Resolution 18 requires the California Highway Patrol, with your assistance, to accomplish the study. This will require that each of us prepare a report when a hitchhiker is involved in a crime or motor vehicle collision.

During the period from May 1, 1973 through October 31, 1973, copies of motor vehicle collision reports, crime reports, arrest reports and victim statements where a hitchhiker was involved should be forwarded to the California Highway Patrol Headquarters. We are concerned, both in the case where the hitchhiker is a suspect and/or a victim. A completed copy of the attached Supplemental Hitchhiker Report should accompany each of your reports.

For this study,  a "crime" is defined as any offense which the law enforcement  officer did or would place the suspect "in-custody".

A "hitchhiker" is defined as a person who is actively soliciting a ride as his sole mode of transportation for a trip. This excludes pedestrians who are not soliciting rides. A person will be considered a hitchhiker when he actively solicits a ride during, or prior to the incident, even though the crime or collision was not a direct result of the hitchhiking activities.


Chief of Police and Sheriffs
Page 2
April 23, 1973

The information obtained from the individual reports will be held in strict confidence. They will be used for statistical reporting information only, with no individual case being reported or discussed.

The reports gathered during the study period will be analyzed and a comprehensive report submitted to the Legislature by March 1, 1974. A copy of the final report will also be sent to your office. Your usual cooperation will be greatly appreciated.

Very truly yours,

W. PUDINSKI
Commissioner

Attachments


State of California
Business and Transportation Agency

Memorandum

To  : All Area Commanders

Date    : April 23, 1973
File No.: 2.A2417.A2838
Subject : HITCHHIKER STUDY

From: Department of California Highway Patrol
      Office of the Deputy Commissioner

Your cooperation is needed in a special research study on hitchhikers the Department was directed to perform by the California Legislature, Senate Resolution 18.

During the period from May 1, 1973 through October 31, 1973, copies of motor vehicle collision reports and arrest reports where a hitchhiker was involved should be forwarded to Headquarters, Operational Analysis Section. We are interested in the hitchhiker as both a victim and/or a suspect. A completed copy of the attached Supplemental Hitchhiker Report should accompany each report being sent.

For this study, a "crime" is defined as any offense the suspect commits for which  the law enforcement officer did or would place the suspect  "in-custody".

A "hitchhiker" is defined as a person who is actively soliciting a ride as his sole mode of transportation for a trip. This excludes pedestrians who are not soliciting rides. A person must be considered a hitchhiker when he or she was a hitchhiker during, or previous to the incident, even though the crime or collision was not a direct result of the party being a hitchhiker.

The reports gathered during the study period will be analyzed and a comprehensive report submitted to the Legislature by March 1, 1974.

D. LANZA
Deputy Commissioner

Attachment

CHP FORM 31. Rev 9 701


Report Number

Reporting Agency

Date

SENATE RESOLUTION #18

SUPPLEMENTAL STUDY REPORT
TO BE ATTACHED TO COLLISION OR CRIME REPORTS INVOLVING HITCHHIKERS

Please complete and attach a copy of this document to a copy of all your agency's reports involving hitchhikers. This includes all crime reports, arrest reports, victim's statements, or motor vehicle collision reports occurring in your jurisdiction during May 1, 1973, through October 31, 1974. Forward each report and supplemental to:

California Highway Patrol
Operational Analysis Section
P.O. Box 898
Sacramento, California 95804

The report should be included if the suspect or victim was a hitchhiker during or just prior to the incident.


Was the hitchhiker the:

  O Victim
  O Suspect


Victim's condition (extent of injury):

  O Mentally upset
  O Complaint of pain
  O Minor abrasions
  O Visible wounds
  O Fata1ity


Hitchhiker was traveling from: ____________________________

                           to: ____________________________


Location where hitchhiker was picked up: ______________________________

Location where (crime, collision) occurred: _____________________________

Distance between the two locations: __________________________________ miles


For this study, the definitions used are:

Crime:

An offense the suspect commits for which the law enforcement officer did, or would, place the suspect "in-custody".

Hitchhiker:

A person who is actively soliciting a ride as his sole mode of transportation for a trip. This excludes pedestrians who are not soliciting rides and persons who's cars have broken down and who are temporarily pedestrians.

Question 1

Was the hitchhiker the:

If the hitchhiker was both a victim and suspect, or if in doubt, mark both victim and suspect boxes.

Question 2

Victim's condition (extent of injury):

Mark the category which indicates the most severe condition of the victim.

Question 3

Hitchhiker traveling from ____________ to _____________:

Write the city name in which the hitchhiker's trip originated and his ultimate destination for the trip. If same town is origin and destination, place same name in both places.

Question 4

Location hitchhiker was picked up, crime was committed:

Exact location of the two occurrences. Example: Hitchhiker was picked up at the - 15th Street on ramp to I50 freeway in Sacramento -.

ANNEX C

RESPONDING AGENCIES

A list of the law enforcement agencies which submitted reports involving hitchhikers follows. Apologies are made for any omissions from the list. Four agencies are included which reported that no hitchhiker crimes or accidents occurred in their jurisdictions. It is assumed that the majority of agencies which did not respond had no qualifying cases.

Police Number of Police Number of
Department Reports Department Reports
Barstow 1 El Monte 3
Bell Gardens 3 Emeryville 2
Berkeley 5 Fontana 2
Beverly Hills 2 Fresno 2
Buena Park 4 Garden Grove 2
Burbank 1 Gilroy 2
Burlingame 1 Grover City 3
Carlsbad 2 Hayward 2
Chula Vista 4 Hawthorne 1
Cloverdale 1 Hermosa Beach 1
Clovis 0 Huntington Beach 9
Costa Mesa 1 Huntington Park
Davis 1 Isleton 1
El Cerrito 1 Lemoore 1

Police Number of Police Number of
Department Reports Department Reports
Livermore 1 San Jose 18
Long Beach 5 San Luis Obispo 7
Los Altos 1 San Mateo 2
Los Angeles 116 Santa Cruz 4
Menlo Park 0 Santa Maria 2
Modesto 1 Santa Monica 12
Newark 3 Sausalito 1
Oakland 2 Seal Beach 1
Pacific Grove 2 South Lake Tahoe 5
Placerville 1 Stanton 1
Pomona 1 Suisun City 1
Redding 3 Susanville 1
Redondo Beach 2 Tiburon 2
Richmond 1 Torrence 2
Salinas 2 Union City 1
San Bernardino 13 Upland 7
San Diego 35 Vallejo 5
San Francisco 29

County Number of County Number of
Sheriff Reports Sheriff Reports
Alpine 0 Placer 2
Alameda 8 Riverside 10
Contra Costa 15 San Bernardino 6
Del Norte 1 San Diego 16
Fresno 9 San Mateo 2
Kern 3 Santa Clara 13
Los Angeles 15 Santa Cruz 2
Marin 13 Siskiyou 2
Mendocino 1 Solano 2
Monterey 13 Stanislaus 1
Orange 3 Yolo 1

California Area Number of
Highway Patrol Number Reports
Claremont 107 1
Crescent City 120 1
Garberville 126 4
Siskiyou 146 1
Wilows 160 4
Alturas 170 1
Auburn 220 2
Placerville 245 1
Sacramento 250 1
Stockton 265 1
Contra Costa 320 2
Napa 325 0
Redwood City 330 1
San Francisco 335 11
San Jose 340 1
Marin 350 9
Sante Cruz 355 1
Santa Rosa 360 3
Vallejo 365 13
Oakland 370 2
Monterey 380 3
Fresno 435 15
Madera 450 2
Mariposa 455 2
San Luis Obispo 470 3
Visalia 480 1
Santa Maria 485 2
Santa Ana 520 1
East Los Angeles 535 1
Newhall 540 4
Lancaster 545 1
Pomona 555 3
Ventura 560 1
Malibu 566 1
West Valley 580 3
Santa Barbera 595 4
Barstow 620 8
Victorville 621 2
Riverside 635 5
San Diego 645 1
Oceanside 650 1
Blythe 660 2

ANNEX D

CRIMES IN CALIFORNIA
CRIME AND CLEARANCE STATEWIDE BY OFFENSE*

THIRD QUARTER 1973

Cleared by arrest
Adult
and
Offense Actual Juvenile Juvenile
Willful Homicide 440 309 29
Manslaughter by Negligence 151 139 9
Robbery
  Weapon 6,273 2,002 338
  Strongarm 4,318 1,256 463
Total Robbery 10,591 3,258 801
Assault
  Aggravated 13,537 8,006 1,129
  Non-Aggravated 17,103 8,855 1,231
Total Assault 30,640 16,861 2,360
Forcible Rape 1,990 923 130
Burglary
  Forcible 59,414 10,553 3,663
  Attempted Forcible 5,673 880 278
  Unlawful Entry 27,885 5,236 1,895
Total Burglary 92,972 16,669 5,836
Theft
  Over $200 20,377 1,812 307
  Under $50 49,903 3,611 1,129
  $50 to $200 82,553 18,383 7,202
Total Theft 152,833 23,806 8,638
Auto Theft 29,191 4,125 1,472
Total (7 Majors) 169,098 35,102 9,704
Total Except Burglary 225,836
GRAND TOTAL 318,808 66,090 19,275

* California Department of Justice, Bureau of Criminal Statistics


ANNEX E

VIOLATION CATEGORIES

The following categories are presented to show the particular penal code violations which were consolidated into various categories. A further consolidation was made when only a few cases of one of the categories were reported.

When more than one person was involved, either as hitchhikers or other parties, characteristics were used which seemed representative of the crime. In most of these cases, ages were close together and sexes were the same.

  1. Coding For Victimless Crimes Involving Hitchhikers
    1. Narcotic (4211-4390.5 B & P, 3000-2301 W & I, 4140-4164 B & P, 11000-11651 H & SC)
    2. Runaway (602 W & I, 602 W & I)
    3. No identification (40302 VC)
    4. Hitchhiking where posted illegal (126 S & H, 21461.5 VC) or 21957 VC - Being in the roadway for purpose of soliciting a ride)
    5. Other
  2. Crimes By or Upon Hitchhikers
    1. Assault/Battery (241 PC, 242 PC, 243 PC, 244 PC, 245 PC)
    2. Theft (488 PC, (484 PC, 498 PC, 487 PC, 786 PC, 789 PC)
    3. Drunk (647 PC, 367(d) PC, 23101 CVC, 23102 CVC, 23121 CVC, 23123.5 CVC, 23122-23125 CVC)
    4. Homicide (187-199 PC)
    5. Robbery (211 PC, 12022.5 PC, 1547 PC)
    6. Auto Theft (299 PC, 287 PC)
    7. Narcotics (4211-4390.5 B & P, 3000-2301 W & I, 4140-4164 B & P, 11000-11651 H & SC)
    8. Rape (261 PC, 263 PC, 262, PC, 264.1 PC, 644 PC, 266 PC, 653(f) PC) (286.1 PC, 288(a), 288(b) PC)
    9. Attempted Rape (220 PC, attempt of above)
    10. Molesting Children (261.5 PC, 273(q) PC, 288 PC, 288.1, 647(a) PC)
    11. Indecent Exposure (314 PC, 331-314 PC)
    12. Runaway Apprehended (601 H & S, 602 H & S)
    13. Other (all other sections of all other codes)
    14. Kidnap (207 PC, 209 PC)

California Crimes And Accidents
Associated With Hitchhiking